The book discusses various aspects of the technical support of underwater archaeological research in marine and freshwater areas. This book considers the relevance, specificity, and artifacts of underwater archaeological research, stating the factors of flooding of archaeological artifacts. The authors describe the basic equipment for underwater work, as well as the equipment for remote study of the bottom and underwater archaeological research. This book presents the usage of instrumentation in underwater archaeology. Case studies included in this book correspond to the flooded ancient Greek cities of Fanagoria and Patraeus in the Taman Bay of the Black Sea, flooded Neolithic settlements on Lake Sennitsa in the Pskov region of Russia, sunken ships in the north of the Black Sea and sunken liner “Titanic” in the Atlantic Ocean. The book is intended for students, graduate students and archaeologists who are interested in the specifics of underwater archaeological research and are planning to conduct it.