More than seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by ocean – the home to a staggering and sometimes overwhelming diversity of organisms, a majority of which reside in pelagic form. Marine invertebrate larvae are an integral part of this pelagic diversity and have stimulated the curiosity of researchers for centuries. Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae provides an important, modern update on the topic of larval ecology, representing the first major synthesis of this interdisciplinary field for more than 20 years. The content is structured around four major areas: evolutionary origins and transitions in developmental mode; functional morphology and ecology of larval forms; larval transport, settlement, and metamorphosis; climate change and larval ecology at the extremes. This novel synthesis integrates traditional larval ecology with life history theory, evolutionary developmental biology, and modern genomics research.